AN OVERVIEW OF TURKEY
Official Name: The Republic of Turkey
Official Language: Turkish
Currency: The currency of the Republic of Turkey is the Turkish Lira. The sub-unit of the Turkish Lira is called “Kuruş”. One Turkish Lira (TL) equals a hundred Kuruş (Kr).
Population: 85.004.000(as at the end of 2021)
Surface Area: 814.576 km²
Number of Provinces: 81 Provinces; Adana, Ankara, Antalya, Aydın, Balıkesir, Bursa, Denizli, Diyarbakır, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Gaziantep, Hatay, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaraş, Kayseri, Kocaeli, Konya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Muğla, Ordu, Sakarya, Samsun, Şanlıurfa, Tekirdağ, Trabzon, Van…
Length of Coastline: 7,200 km
Coastline Borders: The Mediterranean Sea in the south, the Aegean Sea in the west, and the Black Sea in the north.
Bordering Countries: Syria and Iraq in the south, Bulgaria and Greece in the west, Iran, Georgia, Armenia and Nakhchivan, and Azerbaijan in the east
The Flag, consisting of a white crescent and star on a red background, was first used by the Ottoman Empire in 1844. On May 29, 1936, it was legalized through law 2994 to be the National Flag of the Republic of Turkey. It is a tradition to crown the Flag of the nation. Under this law, the Turkish Flag can not be used in a way that harms its moral values. There should be no verbal, written or gestural humiliation. Therefore, insulting or disrespecting the Turkish Flag should be avoided.
Turkish, the official language of Turkey, is ranked 5th in the world with respect to the number of speakers. Turkish is spoken in a vast area today, from China to Hungary, Egypt to Siberia. Today, there are Turkish-speaking communities in the Middle East and Balkan countries in addition to Central Asia and Anatolia.
As a result of the country being a peninsula, the positioning of the mountains and the diversity of landforms, Turkey has several distinct geographic weather and climatic regions. The northern part of Turkey is located in the temperate climatic zone. In contrast, the southern part is subtropical.
Moderate climatic conditions caused by the sea effect are common in coastal areas as the country is surrounded by oceans on three sides. North Anatolian and Taurus Mountains prevent the sea effects from reaching the interior regions of the country. For this reason, continental climatic conditions prevail in the internal areas. You can enjoy All Four seasons in Turkey with their distinct features. Southern parts of the country have higher temperatures than the northern parts.
In the Alanya/Antalya region, you can experience the beaches and the mountains that lead you to ski resorts all in one day in autumn and spring. Alanya’s climate allows visitors to enjoy a very long summer season, which can take until the end of November.
Turkey is one of the rarest countries where you can enjoy all the seasons.
History of Turkey
Turkey and its territory have a very long history. In ancient times, the region on which the Republic of Turkey was founded was called Anatolia (Anadolu), which stands for “the land of sunrise”. Later it was named “Asia Minor” to avoid confusion with the continent of Asia. Having been called “Turchia” by Europeans until the Turks conquered it, this territory is now called “Türkiye”.
The tribes that inhabited Anatolia date back to 7500 BC. Turkey was the cradle of philosophy and home to many civilizations, including the Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, Persians, Macedonian Empire, and Byzantine Empire. The Ottoman Empire ruled over three continents for approximately 600 years as an empire that included more than 20 nations.
The Turkish nation started a struggle for Independence on May 19, 1919, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the modern Republic of Turkey. Then the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established on April 23, 1920. On October 29, 1923, Independence and the establishment of the republic were declared. Turkey was modernized through a series of administrative, legal and social reforms.
Today, the Republic of Turkey is a democratic, secular, constitutional, and social state, respectful of all human rights to the greatest extent.
Turkey is a secular state where religion is considered to be an entirely personal matter. Secularism lies in the foundation of the institutional structure and implies that religion does not affect the state’s affairs. The constitution guarantees freedom of religion and conscience. While the country’s predominant religion is Islam, the religious diversity remains intact, with many people with different religious beliefs living peacefully together.